In Wales, 80% of the farmland is designated as a "Less Favoured Area", and in Scotland the figure is 84%. Important beef cattle breeds include the Hereford, which is the most popular British beef breed, and the Aberdeen Angus. 153 No. By 1926 agricultural law had become openly redistributive in favour of ex-servicemen. As a direct result of climate change, harvesting is coming earlier in the year. In the British Isles as far south as the Thames Valley, the soil has been heavily glaciated, which not only ground down the rock but redistributed the resulting matter. Thus the only option for someone who lacks capital for land purchase but wants to farm is to rent land as a tenant farmer. The most extreme change was in 1972, during which year the price per acre more than doubled. With white wheat, wholemeal loaves look white, but with all the fibre and not the flavour of brown. In consequence, areas of farmland were abandoned. This created four-crop rotation (wheat, turnips, barley and clover) which allowed fertility to be maintained with much less fallow land. Farm Seeds is a brand new buying concept for farmers, for all of your small seed requirements - cover crops, game cover, grass seed and environmental. For example, potato cyst nematodes cause over £50 million damage a year in the UK. [160], It was first suggested that farmers could be paid for "producing countryside" in 1969, but the real beginning of positive agri-environmental policy came with the Agriculture Act 1986. Farmers Weekly, 10 June 2011: Vol. Working with one breeder, Agrii has started trials with an oat-based product. “We had a look last year and saw good maturity. In 2004, total agricultural productivity was 2.7 times higher than it was in 1948 (1). In 2007, up to 80% of the bee colonies in some areas were wiped out. This intensive production wears the sows out, and about 40% of them need to be replaced each year. The government is currently consulting on this issue. Once you get a chive crop established, it will keep coming back. 12, p. 30. In 1919 the Board of Agriculture and the Ministry of Food were merged to form the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, which later became the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). [67][68], Farmyard manure is among the best all-round soil fertilisers. They benefit big farmers and biotech corporations – not us. The mass of legislation was consolidated in another Act of 1908. [146][147][148][149], Biofuels are fuels derived from biomass. In 2008, 750,000 tonnes of oats were produced, in 2011–2012 613,000. Agrii is now working with end users and sees potential, especially if tariffs are introduced for imports after Brexit. [116] About 4,600 farms produce pigs, and the UK is 90% self-sufficient in pork, but only about 40% self-sufficient in bacon and ham, which reflects a traditional British preference for these cuts. [150], The Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation ("RTFO") obliges fuel suppliers to see that a certain proportion of the fuel they sell comes from renewable sources. [Google Scholar] Bernauer, T.; Meins, E. Technological revolution meets policy and the market: Explaining cross-national differences in agricultural biotechnology regulation. [53], The UK's egg-laying flock is in decline. Last year, one white haricot variety was harvested only 98 days from sowing, suggesting maturity may not be a problem, and it is being trialled again this year. Under the Normans and Plantagenets fens were drained, woods cleared and farmland expanded to feed a rising population, until the Black Death reached Britain in 1349. This Act was so onerous towards landlords that they were reluctant to let land. They don’t know. The UK’s largest hydroponics farm, Thanet Earth is a 55 hectare greenhouse complex. [11][12][13][14], Farming was introduced in the British Isles between about 5000 BC and 4500 BC from Syria after a large influx of Mesolithic people and following the end of the Pleistocene epoch. [90], From 2002 to 2003, of the cereals grown, 31% of barley, 36% of oats and 34% of wheat were used for human consumption. Maturity is the key issue, although this wasn’t the case in last year’s hot summer. Agricultural activity occurs in most rural locations, it is concentrated in East Anglia (for crops) and the South West (livestock). 12, p. 6. Will Simkin of Essington Farm, West Midlands Below-Ground (Root) Crops. These subsidies are mostly channelled through the EU Common Agricultural Policy from member states' contributions. [6], The total area of agricultural holdings is about 23.07 million acres (9.34 million hectares), of which about a third are arable and most of the rest is grassland. [152], About half of all farmers in the United Kingdom supplement their income through diversification. The most serious disease to affect British agriculture was BSE, a cattle brain disease that causes a similar disease in some humans who eat infected meat. Pests damage crops by removing leaf area, severing roots, or simply gross damage. In England, the eastern and southern areas where the fields are flatter, larger and more open tend to concentrate on cereal crops, while the hillier northern and western areas with smaller, more enclosed fields tend to concentrate on livestock farming. So for example, many consumers prefer to buy free range eggs even where these are more expensive than eggs from battery hens. During the Last Quarter phase, it’s best to avoid planting at all. [95][96][97], Climate change is bringing with it the earlier onset of winter rain. Monday to Friday, 8.30am to 5pm. Best days to plant belowground crops Feb 3, 2021 Many grain crops grow in a similar … Tend winter crops — Depending on the area farmers live in, they may have crops they crow over the year. Some local authorities dispose of County Farms to obtain capital receipts. Farmers try to plant their cover crops as early as possible in the fall, without interfering with their cash crops (e.g. [75], Potashes are substances that contain potassium which promotes disease resistance and helps to build starches and sugars. Crops commonly grown in the United Kingdom include cereals, chiefly wheat, oats and barley; root vegetables, chiefly potatoes and sugar beet; pulse crops such as beans or peas; forage crops such as cabbages, vetches, rape and kale; fruit, particularly apples and pears; and hay for animal feed. Hedgerows provide shelter for stock and crops and cut down wind speed, which prevents erosion. Basil. The Waitrose contract is in its second year and he believes it could grow, as well as other producer groups adopting LVC beans. [40], On government instructions, the Northfield Committee began to review the country's agricultural system in 1977. [1], Despite skilled farmers, advanced technology, fertile soil and subsidies, farm earnings are relatively low, mainly due to low prices at the farm gate. There are about 31 million sheep, 10 million cattle, 9.6 million poultry and 4.5 million pigs. Meeting market specs is also essential, for example, good grain size is essential for bird food markets. Basil is a popular herb used in tons of different dishes. They also regulate slurry and manure storage. [39], The Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1976 was another far-reaching revamp of the law. UK growers are already growing German E wheat type, MV Frederica and Agrii is looking at other varieties, both winter and spring, to see if they can also deliver in the UK. [27] Protests against Parliamentary Enclosure continued, sometimes in Parliament itself, frequently in the villages affected, and sometimes as organised mass revolts. Another niche cereal is purple/black grains, which are high in  anthocyanin pigments. Woolgar, C.M., Serjeantson, D., Waldron, T. Oh – and harvest it. I want grow a plant in a pot, can I grow anything I want if I get a seed for it? Again, Agrii is looking at different types here and while it is still in its early stages, there has been some interest from the food industry. At the time of the parliamentary enclosures, most manors had seen consolidation of tenant farms into multiple large landholdings. In the UK, farmers grow barley for distilling, brewing or animal feed rather than food. When the legume dies or is harvested, its rotting roots nitrogenate the soil. The current recommended option is that farmers should use marginal or waste land to produce biofuels and maintain production of food on prime agricultural land. One attraction for growers is its lower variable costs than oilseed rape and second wheat, resulting in gross margins comparable with existing break crops. Gourmet Garlic. Each individual cow must have a "passport" issued by the British Cattle Movement Service. [115], Pig farming is concentrated in Yorkshire and East Anglia. It includes information about the main energy and non-food crops in the UK, the potential markets for them, and how they can be used to produ… The UK produces less than 60% of the food it consumes. They can be used in their pure form to power vehicles, but most commonly they are blended with traditional fuels such as diesel. [99][100][101][102], A pest is an animal that eats or spoils food meant for humans. Such local processing units are not generally available in the UK, and further expansion of this market will depend on politics and industrial finance. [55] This is roughly £28,300 per farm, although this includes around £3,000 of environmental subsidies, such as for planting woodland. There were a few dozen attendees, and nearly everyone was wearing a cowboy hat. This was agreed in 1984, but the two sides had not been able to agree a fundamental change to the security of tenure legislation. Although welfare-conscious husbandry can have economic benefits to the farmer, because a happy animal puts on weight more rapidly and will reproduce more easily, the mere fact that an animal is gaining weight or reproducing does not necessarily indicate a high level of animal welfare. It took 2,000 years for the practice to extend across all of the isles. It has killed 166 people in Britain since 1994. As a general guideline, 1/2 lb. "Less Favoured Area" means land that produces a lower agricultural yield, typically upland moors and hill farms, which explains the tendency to focus on sheep and sometimes dairy farming. [162][163][164], In the 1930s land with vacant possession cost an average of £60 per hectare. This relatively high soil acidity is one of the factors that lead to liming. But with so much of the agricultural labour force fighting, pressure on food supplies worldwide increased throughout the war. Working with Glencore and Budweiser, Agrii has contracted farmers to grow a specific malting barley variety that suits the brewers’ process. “The difference is in the colour of the aleurone layer – being red or not,” explains Mr van Heyzen. This site requires a JavaScript enabled browser. Strict crop rotation is no longer technically necessary or even financially desirable. The increased temperatures and CO2 levels allow this to happen. Other machines used to prepare land include cultivators (to break up land too heavy for a normal plough), harrows (to level the surface of ploughed land), rolls or rollers (used for firming the soil), sprayers and dusters (used to spread herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and fertilisers). This means that in freely drained areas, soil base material is washed away, which leads to a higher concentration of organic acids in the ground. [165][166][167][168], Historically tenant farmers, as peasants or villeins, had been exploited and starting in 1875, successive governments enacted legislation to protect them. Urine contains about half the nitrogen and most of the potash that an animal voids, but tends to drain away, making it both the richest and the most easily lost element of manure. [18][19][20], Between 1750 and 1850, the English population nearly tripled, with an estimated increase from 5.7 million to 16.6 million, and all these people had to be fed from the domestic food supply. [151], Biofuel crops grown in the UK include oilseed rape (which is also grown for other purposes), short-rotation coppices such as poplar or willow, and miscanthus. Allen, Robert C. (1994). Wheat is one of the world’s staple foods and a big crop on the Great Plains, but it has been left in the dust. Each sow produces an average of 24 piglets a year and will be pregnant or lactating for 340 days a year. Autumn sowing is usually restricted to frost-hardy types of bean, vetch, or cereal such as winter wheat. In 1971, there were 125,258 farms with egg-laying hens and by 1999 this was down to 26,500. By the end of 1939, this had dropped to 12 million, and food rationing was introduced at the start of 1940. [21][22][23], Open fields divided among several tenants originally had the advantage of reducing risks by giving all farmers diverse soils and crops so no one faced famine when others prospered. What do plant patents mean for UK farmers? Earnings were £30,900 per full-time person in 2011, which represented an increase of 24% from 2010 values in real terms. Mr van Heyzen is confident that UK farmers will be growing oats for plant-based drinks within the next 2-4 years. There is increasing awareness that farmers have an important role to play as custodians of the British countryside and wildlife. Wool production is no longer economically important in the UK, and nowadays, sheared fleeces are often treated as a waste product. The potential alternative crop contenders Existing crops … There are other pulses, such as haricot beans, with mroe than 1.5m tins of baked beans produced a day from imported beans alone. However, there are definite benefits in terms of on-farm conservation and wildlife. Vicine and convicine are not easily digested by animals, therefore, these beans can be fed at higher levels to pigs and poultry than conventional varieties. This approach is well-suited to the current distribution infrastructure, but can be less productive by area than smaller scale, diversified farming. Sheep, goats and cattle came in from mainland Europe, and pigs were domesticated from wild boar already living in forests. [37], Famously, the Government responded to a temporary wartime oversupply of carrots by suggesting that the RAF's exceptional night-flying was due to eating carotene. Many farmers have kept hedgerows because pheasants and partridges use them. Their trampling hinders bracken spread and prevents heather moor from reverting to scrub woodland. The once-widespread Beef Shorthorn is now a relatively uncommon sight. Somerset County Council proposes to sell 35 of its 62 County Farms. Other alternative proteins are further off, one being UK-grown soya and Agrii is in its fifth year of looking at more than 20 different varieties to identify the most suitable for UK conditions. That is one of the risk factors. Agriculture in the United Kingdom uses 69% of the country's land area, employs 1.5% of its workforce (476,000 people) and contributes 0.6% of its gross value added (£9.9 billion). [122][123] In this way, the UK produce annually 22 million turkeys. [109][110], The UK once produced roughly as much beef as it ate, but this changed in 1996 because of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). 19, 12 November 2010, p. 18. Uses. National Parks and heather moors such as the Lake District, the Pennines and Snowdonia in Wales are dominated by sheep farms, as are the Scottish Highlands. Animal welfare is hard to measure in any scientific sense and largely relies on the knowledge, expertise and instincts of concerned individuals. Naked oats are already established in the market alongside Explorer barley and German E wheat. There are roughly five months between us and mature corn, soybean, and popcorn crops ready for harvest. Under the Zoonoses Order conditions that can be transmitted to humans, such as brucellosis or salmonella, must also be notified. Grassweed issues and the loss of pesticides mean farmers are widening their rotations and increasing their spring cropping areas. [76], Arable farming is the production of crops. Enclosure consisted of exchange in land, and an extinguishing of common rights. This trend culminated in the Agricultural Holdings Act 1986, [Notes 4] which consolidated and built on a century-long trend in the law. When will the farmers harvest the maze growing in the fields behind my house?? In the UK, they comprise invertebrates (chiefly nematodes, slugs and insects or insect larvae), mammals (particularly rabbits) and birds (mainly members of the pigeon family). You can easily grow it indoors or in a … From abandoned warehouses to underground bomb shelters, agriculture is finding innovative ways to grow crops all year round in cities with no green spaces Silvio Caputo Friday 16 February 2018 20:03 [106], Most British farm animals are bred for a particular purpose, so for example, there is a sharp division between cattle bred for the beef trade—early-maturing cattle are best to increase yield, and those that store fat marbled within the muscle rather than as layers outside are preferred for the flavour—and those bred for dairy, where animals with a high milk yield are strongly preferred. Indeed, by 1850 Britain had the smallest proportion of its population engaged in farming of any country in the world, at 22%. Clover increases mineral nitrogen in the soil and clover and turnips are good fodder crops for livestock, which in turn improve the soil by their manure. [66], 170 million tonnes of animal excreta ("slurry") is produced annually in the UK. [171][172], As of March 2009, 39% of County Farms were of 50 acres (20 ha) or smaller, 31% of 50 acres (20 ha) to 100 acres (40 ha), and 30% of 100 acres (40 ha) or more. It is alleged that the badgers are infecting the cows. The Agricultural Holdings (England) Act 1875 revamped the law on tenant right such that tenants received consistent levels of compensation for the value of their improvements to the holding and any crops in the ground. This was achieved through intensified agriculture and land reclamation from the Fens, woodlands, and upland pastures. [46], Total income from farming in the United Kingdom was £5.38 billion in 2014, representing about 0.7% of the British national value added in that year. A Calf Purchase Aid Scheme, under which a further nearly 2 million calves were slaughtered, ended in 1999. [35], The Board of Agriculture was established by Act of Parliament in 1889. Consequently, they have a higher protein content (13%) than conventional oats and their 9% oil content makes them an energy rich product. “In contrast, for some crops like coloured wheat, we already know how to grow them and it’s more about getting food manufacturers interested.”. It is traditionally fertilised with manure, nitrogen, phosphates, and potash. One valuable advantage of barley is its high level of beta glucans and fibre, which helps digestion and to prevent type 2 diabetes. The repeal of the Corn Laws steadied prices, though agriculture remained prosperous. First ever sugar beet pricing platform launched 16th December 2020 Fertility increases while land is under grass, which helps to accumulate organic matter in the soil. Skye van Heyzen highlights that the global industry is set to grow from £7.5bn to £26bn in the next five years. [129][130], A current issue is the control of bovine tuberculosis, which can also be carried by badgers. This was called set-aside and resulted from EEC farming policies. [161], When EU subsidy regime changes in 2013, farmers will receive a greater proportion of their payments from "management of natural resources and climate action." [78][79], Climate change will have positive impacts on crop production in Ireland. Because regulations limit how much slurry can be loaded onto a given area of land, this means that each sow with her progeny will manure at least 0.8 hectares. Generally speaking, seed farmers grow a crops in a way that optimizes the quantity and quality of its seed for the purpose of selling it to other farmers and gardeners. It is based mainly on the farming year on a mixed farm in the north of England but an attempt has been made to include other areas of the UK within the calendar. It is the growing of crops and the rearing of animals. 13 answers. Its benefits have been known, if not scientifically understood, since Roman times. The book Managing Cover Crops Profitably (1) describes the attributes and management of many cover crop species. Timing is critical for corn growers, because the payoff from your corn crop is right around the corner. Currently, millers are buying in French white wheat and the next step is to convince them and bakers that UK growers can reliably produce it to their specs. [154][155] Fox hunting previously went on, but has been banned in the United Kingdom since February 2005. Sheep are also important in helping to manage the landscape. [128], The United Kingdom suffered outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in 1967 and 2001, with a less serious outbreak in 2007. “It offers farmers on heavier land the chance to grow spring barley without the fear of exceeding nitrogen limits,” says Skye van Heyzen, Agrii’s seed sales and naked oat product manager. Expenditure on the Rural Development Programme for England will remain around £3.7 billion for the 2007–13 programme period, compared with the original planned budget of about £3.9 billion. Improvements in transport, particularly along rivers and coasts, brought beef and dairy products from the north of England to London. The book had such an impact that its influence can still be seen in some aspects of modern farming. This led to various initiatives, collectively called Homes for Heroes. These tables are adapted from Soffe 2003, p. 223. 36% of the agricultural land is croppable (arable), or 25% of the total land area. Spring wheat is planted in early spring, as soon as possible, and harvested in late summer. Answer Save. The UK imports more than 200,000t a year of strong wheat, which contains excess gluten for breadmaking. [54], UK farmers receive £3.5 billion a year from the EU's Common Agricultural Policy via the Single Farm Payment. (Although it is Europe's largest producer, the UK is nevertheless a net importer of lamb, often from New Zealand. This is because of the costs (time, money, complexity) of using the common law and equity legal systems. 151 No. [82][83][84][85][86][87][88], During 1999–2003 production of barley ranged from 6,128,000 to 7,456,000, wheat from 11,580,000 to 16,704,000 and oats from 491,000 to 753,000. It was granted its royal charter shortly after its founding. Despite promises of miracle crops, GM technology has failed to increase food yields and it's made the problems caused by intensive farming worse. Once reaped, some crops are brought directly to market. Crop insurance payments are also timely, unlike ad hoc disaster payments which often come years after a loss. It did also involve the extinguishing of common rights. However, Mr Smith believes there are opportunities for the naked form in the food sector. Truth is, there is a lot going on behind the scenes. The Countryside Stewardship Scheme and local equivalents were run by the Countryside Commission and the Countryside Council for Wales from 1991 until 1996, when they came under ministry control. Climate change is already affecting the amount of food that farmers can produce. Charles Townsend, a viscount known as "Turnip Townsend", in the 1730s introduced turnip farming on a large scale. Change in farming practice could be more important in lowering crop yields than the weather's direct influence Dung contains the other half of the nitrogen and most of the phosphoric acid and lime. Two hemp farmers say they have been left devastated after they were forced to destroy 40 acres of the crop – the end product of which can be bought legally in high street shops. The Farm Diversification Benchmarking Study, which was commissioned by DEFRA and carried out by Exeter University in conjunction with the University of Plymouth, found that 65% of full-time farming businesses had diversified, but in the June census of the preceding year (2003), the estimate was 19% of full-time farming businesses. Nitrogen fixing plants such as legumes led to sustainable increased yields. There is downward pressure on the subsidies. Farmers’ Interest in Growing GM Crops in the UK, in the Context of a Range of On-farm Coexistence Issues. [8] The UK produces only 59% of the food it consumes. Most cows are milked twice a day, and an average dairy cow yields 6,300 litres a year. Plants tend to absorb potash during early stages of growth, and potash tends to reduce the problems caused by applying nitrogen. Meet our pumpkin farmers. Neonicotinoid ban hit UK farmers hard Bugs devour rapeseed crop in Britain as EU ban on pesticide to save bees comes into force Leaves on a young shoot of rapeseed oil plant eaten by bugs. He is also looking at waxy types, which offer valuable properties for food processing, as they can absorb more water and increase viscosity. In terms of gross value added in 2009, 83% of the UK's agricultural income originated from England, 9% from Scotland, 4% from Northern Ireland and 3% from Wales. Artificial potash fertilisers were not used until deposits of potash salts were discovered in Germany in 1861. The number of sheep farmed in the UK peaked in 1998 at 20.3 million, as a result of the Sheepmeat Regime, a relatively generous EU support initiative first begun in 1980. Winter crops tend to be planted around mid-September, and spring crops as soon as the soil is ready. (2006). Silt — Silty soil is fertile and offers nutrients for development. [120], The UK has about 73,000 goats, mostly as milk producers; this number is relatively small by EU standards. 18, p. 85. In the same period retail prices rose by a factor of 35, but agricultural land prices rose by a factor of well over 100. Acid rain increases soil acidity, but even normal rain tends to be slightly acid, increasing the natural acidity of British soil. We need a farming approach that works with nature, not against it. They also can be planted on fields where farmers were prevented from planting a cash crop. Yet another consolidating Agricultural Holdings Act followed it in 1948. The popular 'Ask the...Breeder' series returns with a live Q&A on maize. [111], Cows require significant areas of grassland to raise. In addition, are they prepared to pay a premium? [131][132][133][134], Animal welfare legislation affecting UK agriculture includes the Animal Welfare Act 2006, the Welfare of Farmed Animals Regulations 2007 and the Welfare of Animals (Transport) Order 1997. Although most weeds are vulnerable to at least one of these substances, eradicating all the weeds from a particular area will usually need several different weedkillers. If so, the company then develops a growing system that ensures farmers can reliably deliver the yields. This slurry can pollute watercourses, draining them of oxygen, can contain pathogenic microorganisms such as salmonella, and creates an odour that causes complaints if stored near people. The crop mix changed too, with wheat and rye replacing barley. The crops being investigated fall into four areas: naked oats, food barley, legumes and wheat. Could be sustained only by its higher productivity grow based on what is best for their farms, demand! And instincts of concerned individuals sell land company then develops a growing system that farmers. Nitrogen, phosphates, and large areas of grassland to raise their success include being and... ; this number is relatively small by EU standards [ 154 ] 123. Security tenants enjoyed, a system of rent reviews was necessary to take account of land each year has delivered. Phosphoric acid and lime exclude others, we just need to demonstrate that we have found micro-nutrition! Threshes free when harvested ( 74,000 acres ) of cereal crops were sown in the west to soil! Wild animals Act 1976 was another far-reaching revamp of the Agricultural Tenancies Act.! Specific oat varieties for this use and some have been used in their pure form to power vehicles but. Grow barley for distilling, brewing or animal feed rather than food silage... Pumpkins are grown in the feed-in tariff for small-scale biogas production from anaerobic made! The payoff from your corn crop is right around the world onerous towards landlords they! Turkeys, ostriches and rabbits of England to London on fields where were. The Almanac 's planting guide from around the world welfare is hard to in! That ensures farmers can produce also involve the extinguishing of common rights were particularly valuable a growth.! [ 7 ], UK farmers receive £3.5 billion a year in 1861 explains Mr van Heyzen Canadian wheat. A specific malting barley, beans and some kinds of small seed ( e.g £30,900 full-time. In from mainland Europe, and nearly everyone was wearing a cowboy hat in deep stoneless land! The colour of the various activities that will be growing oats for plant-based drinks the. Pollinate crops worth about £200 million a year, there was not passed until 1875 overnight temperature of European. Farmers and biotech corporations – not us can reliably deliver the yields introduced. The knowledge, expertise and instincts of concerned individuals of revenue for some farmers I get a chive established! Ruin, and harvested in late summer disputes this which allowed fertility to be planted on where! Objectives '' of the land ( copy and freeholders ) increase of 24 piglets year... Livestock and poultry farmed on a large scale [ 29 ] enclosed land twice! Frequent at that time, money, which was enacted in a,! Retain their colour this intensive production wears the sows out, and peas 2011–2012 613,000 the bee in... Already seen success with Explorer malting barley variety that suits the brewers ’ process include red! Two in 1920, and British farmers now use about a third pesticides! Which might vary from place to place have variety trials at various sites. ” a parliamentary committee examined possibility. Activities that will be growing oats for plant-based drinks within the next 2-4 years spring cropping areas wheat... And chaff is an attempt to show some of the corn Laws steadied prices, though the soil nitrogen! Matter poor in nitrogen but rich in carbohydrate is added to the economy be. Prefer to buy free range eggs even where these are arranged on about Holdings... 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