Other procurement advantages could come from preferential access to raw materials, or backward integration. such as a combination of quality, style, convenience, and price. In service industries, this may mean for example a restaurant that turns tables around very quickly, or an airline that turns around flights very fast. The four strategies to choose from are: Cost Leadership. In cost leadership, a firm sets out to become the low cost producer in its industry. If a firm's business strategy could not cope with the environmental and market contingencies, long-term survival becomes unrealistic. Until 1980 it was observed that the impact of marketing was not uniform for different companies. This strategy involves the firm winning market share by appealing to cost-conscious or price-sensitive customers. A firm using a focus strategy often enjoys a high degree of customer loyalty, and this entrenched loyalty discourages other firms from competing directly. Porter's generic strategies meaning: the theory, developed by Michael Porter, that a business can get an advantage over other similar…. Achieving competitive advantage results from a firm's ability to cope with the five forces better than its rivals. 1. There are three/four generic strategies, either lower cost, differentiated, or focus.  Two focal objectives of low cost leadership and differentiation clash with each other resulting in no proper direction for a firm. A cost leadership strategy may have the disadvantage of lower customer loyalty, as price-sensitive customers will switch once a lower-priced substitute is available. There are three main streams for the Michael Porter’s Generic Strategies w hich are: Cost leadership; Differentiation; Focus; These main strategies are divided in 5 types: 1. Depending on the market and competitive conditions, hybrid strategy should be adjusted regarding the extent which each generic strategy (cost leadership or differentiation) should be given priority in practice. The argument is based on the fundamental that differentiation will incur costs to the firm which clearly contradicts with the basis of low cost strategy and on the other hand relatively standardised products with features acceptable to many customers will not carry any differentiation hence, cost leadership and differentiation strategy will be mutually exclusive. a corporation is less likely to become "stuck in the middle. a firm must select only one of these three generic strategies. Economics |
The shareholder value model holds that the timing of the use of specialized knowledge can create a differentiation advantage as long as the knowledge remains unique. The advantage is static, rather than dynamic, because the purchase is a one-time event. It is more appropriate for big companies. If a firm attempts to achieve an advantage on all fronts, in this attempt it may achieve no advantage at all. Michael Porter’s Generic strategies is a tool that can be used for identifying the direction of the organization. Consistent and superior performance than competition could be reached with stronger foundations in the event “hybrid strategy” is adopted. The sources of cost advantage are varied and depend on the structure of the industry. Michael Porter has developed the three generic strategies, namely cost leadership, focus strategy, and differentiation strategy (Kossowski, 2007). Michael Porter & The Generic Strategies And when it comes to competitive advantage, Porter was equally simple because your competitive advantage can either be: From being the lowest cost operator supplier acceptable goods and services at a reasonable price (and having the ability to beat anyone else on price if necessary) Do I need Porter’s Generic Strategies? Advantage Advantage Target Scope (Low Cost) (Product Uniqueness) Broad Cost Leadership Differentiation (Industry wide) Narrow Focus Strategy Focus Strategy (Market wide) (low cost) (differentiation) 5. The generic strategy reflects the choices made regarding both the type of competitive advantage and the scope. because within the same product customers often seek multi-dimensional satisfactions A company also chooses one of two types of scope, either focus (offering its products to selected segments of the market) or industry-wide, offering its product across many market segments. You may do so in isolation of other strategies or in conjunction with focus strategies (requires more initial investment). Porter’s generic competitive strategy is a framework that is useful for planning the strategic direction of your business that assists with gaining an advantage in the marketplace over your competitors. Porter claimed that a company must only choose one of the three or risk that the business would waste precious resources. Because of the product's unique attributes, if suppliers increase their prices the firm may be able to pass along the costs to its customers who cannot find substitute products easily. 2006, p. 50) multiple business strategies are required to respond effectively to any environment condition. A Combination of Generic Strategies These initial strategies as described by Porter were: Cost Leadership (cheap, no expenses), Differentiation (unique or premium products) and Focus (a specialised service or market). Some risks of focus strategies include imitation and changes in the target segments. Porter, Michael E., Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. This page was last edited on 5 May 2020, at 14:25. The choice of offering low prices or differentiated products/services should depend on the needs of the selected segment and the resources and capabilities of the firm. Examples of the successful use of a differentiation strategy are Hero, Asian Paints, HUL, Nike athletic shoes (image and brand mark), BMW Group Automobiles, Perstorp BioProducts, Apple Computer (product's design), Mercedes-Benz automobiles. They are operational excellence, product leadership, and customer intimacy. Porter's generic strategies framework constitutes a major contribution to the development of the strategy development and strategic management literature in the modern world. 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