Vinyl chloride has been found in the air near vinyl chloride manufacturing and processing plants, hazardous waste sites, and landfills. Vinyl chloride is released into the environ- ment in emissions and effluents from the plastics industry. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous contaminant classified as a human carcinogen. Vinyl chloride is classified as Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC, meaning it is seen as a definite cause of cancer in humans. Vinyl chloride in the air breaks down in a few days ... (DHHS) has determined that vinyl chloride is a known carcinogen. Vinyl chloride is classified as a “known human carcinogen” by the NTP and the USEPA, and as a Group 1 human carcinogen by the IARC, with known target sites including the liver, lung, and connective tissues [19,109,112]. EPA has classified vinyl chloride as a Group A, human carcinogen. Make sure the right personal protective equipment and clothing is used, like safety goggles, chemical resistant clothing and gloves (chemical resistant or insulated) and respirators. Gene-environmentinteractions between DNA repair polymorphisms and exposure to the carcinogen vinyl chloride.Biomarkers 2009;14:148-55. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. Vinyl Chloride Carcinogenic Potency Dose Response Data Animal Colony Fisher Exact Probability Test These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the nature (e.g. 63. Vinyl chloride was carcinogenic to rats, mice and hamsters when administratered by oral inhalation or i.p. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006. International Agency for Research on Cancer. They provide EPA staff with guidance for developing and using risk assessments. inhalation, ingestion, skin contact), duration and level of exposure. Industries at risk are manufacture of industrial chemicals, plastic products, fabricated metal products or machinery. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make PVC, a substance used in products such as pipes. of vinyl chloride, i.e., early exposures are associated with higher liver cancer incidence than similar or much longer exposures that occur after maturity. If you would like to reproduce some or all of this content, see Reuse of NCI Information for guidance about copyright and permissions. Polyvinyl chloride is more often referred to by its less-technical names, PVC and vinyl. Become a friend of the roadmap and stay up to date on activities, solutions and the news. Long term overexposure to Vinyl Chloride in humans and laboratory animals has been known to cause angiosarcoma of the liver. exposure to vinyl chloride via inhalation, as vinyl chloride exposure has been shown to increase the risk of a rare form of liver cancer in humans. Please Note: The main sources of information for this fact sheet are the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Vinyl chloride is also a known genotoxicant, causing chemical alterations of DNA in tissues that may lead to cancer following exposure of humans and experimental animals (1, 2). The main route of occupational exposure to vinyl chloride is by inhalation, which occurs primarily in vinyl chloride/PVC plants and in PVC-processing plants (including packaging, storage and handling of vinyl chloride). Children products including: water bottles, lunch boxes, toys, small chairs and tables, school bags and stationery items such as pencil boxes can contain some amounts of PVC. The general population may be exposed by inhaling contaminated air or tobacco smoke. Some strains of obligate organohalide respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi can synthesize the VC reductase that catalyzes the dechlorination of VC to ethene. In 1974 vinyl chloride (VC), a gas used in the plastics industry, was shown to be a human carcinogen, inducing a very rare type of tumor, angiosarcoma of the liver. EPA has classified vinyl chloride as a Group A, human carcinogen. How can exposures be reduced? Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke. The same type of tumor was induced in rodents exposed to VC thus providing an excellent model for mechanistic studies. Vinyl chloride is a highly dangerous chemical used to make numerous plastic materials. Chronic exposure leads to common forms of respiratory failure ( emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis) and focused hepatotoxicity ( … It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Triangle Park, NC: National Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, 2016. Studies in workers who have breathed vinyl chloride over many years showed an increased risk of liver, brain, lung cancer, and some cancers of the blood PVC—polyvinyl chloride, or vinyl—is found in a range of products, from children's toys to building materials to food packaging. Public Health Statement: Vinyl Chloride. Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It can also irritate the eyes, skin, mucous membranes and respiratory tract. Wang Q, Ji F, Sun Y, Qiu YL, Wang W, Wu F, et al. Workers at facilities where vinyl chloride is produced or used may be exposed primarily through inhalation. Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. Vinyl Chloride is listed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Toxicology Program (NTP) as a known human carcinogen, by the International Primary exposure to vinyl chloride occurs through inhalation. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has determined that vinyl chloride is carcinogenic to people, and EPA has determined that vinyl chloride is a human carcinogen. vinyl chloride (by about an order of magnitude) (Bolt et al. Vinyl chloride exposure is associated with an increased risk of a rare form of liver cancer (hepatic angiosarcoma), as well as brain and lung cancers, lymphoma, and leukemia. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Employers shall include vinyl chloride in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS (§1910.1200). The association between Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen (cancer-causing agent). The U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration provides information about exposure limits to vinyl chloride. substance or exposure is only on one agency’s list, this it does not necessarily mean there is a controversy, as one agency may not have evaluated Uses [of PolyVinyl Chloride] Most of the vinyl chloride produced in the United States is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a material used to manufacture a variety of plastic and vinyl products including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1,HOGG1 and MGMT and micronucleus occurrence in Chinese vinyl chloride-exposed workers.Carcinogenesis 2010;31:1068-73. Public … But also in occupations or services allied to transport and construction. Chronic exposure can cause permanent liver injury and liver cancer, neurologic or behavioral symptoms and changes to the skin and bones of the hand. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. When present above the maximum concentration level (MCL) of 2 ppb, sites are unable to close and require continued remediation and monitoring. The primary target organ for vinyl chloride exposure is the liver (1, 2). Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not necessarily cause cancer on their own, but promote the activity of other carcinogens in causing cancer. Human carcinogen -- Vinyl Chloride: Vinyl Chloride is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Most often used in construction, PVC is a plastic composed of three elements: carbon, hydrogen and chlorine. If a water supply is contaminated, vinyl chloride can enter household air when the water is used for showering, cooking, or laundry. Prolonged exposure can cause cancer in the liver, brain, blood and lungs. Orally administered vinyl chloride is rapidly absorbed and has been shown to be mutagenic and/or genotoxic in a number of systems. Vinyl chloride ≥99.5%; CAS Number: 75-01-4; EC Number: 200-831-0; Synonym: Chloroethylene; Linear Formula: C2H3Cl; find Sigma-Aldrich-387622 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich. From: Systems Biology in Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2015. Acute exposure to vinyl chloride can lead to symptoms that include weakness, dizziness, fatigue, weight loss, numbness and tingling of the extremities, visual disturbances and in severe cases to coma and death. Vinyl chloride exposure is associated with an increased risk of a rare form of liver cancer (hepatic angiosarcoma), as well as brain and lung cancers, lymphoma, and leukemia. Vinyl chloride, from which PVC is manufactured, is a carcinogen and thus a hazard in PVC production. injection routes, with increaed incidences of liver tumors, pulmonary angiosarcomas, extrahepatic abdominal angiosarcomas, and tumors of the Zymbal gland … Vinyl Chloride is a known human carcinogen. (2) • EPA has classified vinyl chloride as a known human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure. Vinyl bromide appears to be a more potent inducer of hepatic hemangiosarcoma in rats than is vinyl chloride. Where risks occur The main route of occupational exposure to vinyl chloride is by inhalation, which occurs primarily in vinyl chloride/PVC plants and in PVC-processing plants (including packaging, storage and handling of vinyl chloride). Vinyl chloride (VC) is primarily used to manufacture polyvinyl chloride and can also be a degradation product of TCE. Vinyl Chloride, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 100F. Latency period between exposure and vinyl chloride related cancers varies strongly depending on the different types of cancer. Vinyl chloride is used to make polyvinyl chloride, which is then used to manufacture a spectrum of … There is much data to substantiate a causal association between exposure to vinyl chloride and a distinctive form of liver cancer (angiosarcoma). Inform workers about the risks, appropriate resistant clothing and equipment and obligated preventive measures. In the environment, the highest levels of vinyl chloride are found in air around factories that produce vinyl products. There is sufficient evidence that vinyl chloride exposure causes angiosarcoma of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings and packaging materials. Vinyl acetate 2B – – Vinyl bromide 2A – – Vinyl chloride 1 K Z Vinyl fluoride 2A RA – 2,6-Xylidine 2B – – Note: The list of TRI chemicals meeting the OSHA carcinogen standard and, therefore, not reported when in a mixture at a concentration level below the de minimus level of 0.1% has Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke. 1978), which suggests that vinyl bromide’s greater carcinogenic potency may be related to kinetic differences in metabolism. Primary Cause of Human carcinogen -- Vinyl Chloride . or the Agency’s) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, published in 51 FR 33992, September 24, 1986 (U.S. EPA, 1986a) and the 1999 interim final guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1999a; see U.S. EPA 2001b). In the case of permitted digital reproduction, please credit the National Cancer Institute as the source and link to the original NCI product using the original product's title; e.g., “Vinyl Chloride was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.”, Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM), Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer, Emotional Support for Young People with Cancer, Young People Facing End-of-Life Care Decisions, Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment, Tech Transfer & Small Business Partnerships, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery, Step 1: Application Development & Submission, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Vinyl chloride Toxicological overview Key Points Kinetics and metabolism ... (IARC), vinlyl chloride is a recognised human carcinogen. Vinyl chloride (VC) is a human carcinogen that accumulates in soil and groundwater due to incomplete dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. Vinyl Chloride, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Atmospheric concentrations of VCM in ambient air are low (usually < 3 μg/m3) and ambient air samples in rural and urban areas of the USA typically do not contain detectable levels of vinyl chloride ( … Vinyl chloride is classified as Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC, meaning it is seen as a definite cause of cancer in humans. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Lyon, France: World Health Organization, 2012. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has determined that vinyl chloride is a known carcinogen. Employers shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of vinyl chloride and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and paragraph (j) of this section. Vinyl chloride is a Group 1 human carcinogen posing elevated risks of rare angiosarcoma, brain and lung tumors, and malignant haematopoeitic lymphatic tumors. The primary cause of Human carcinogen -- Vinyl Chloride is the result: at any time, from exposure to toxins, poisons, environmental, or other substances. Selected References: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (1) Vinyl chloride, the chemical used to make PVC, is a known human carcinogen, according to the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Together we can make a difference. Vinyl chloride is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1, a known human carcinogen. 62. Although the industries that use this chemical have known about the harmful effects of vinyl chloride for decades, it has only recently been identified as a known carcinogen. 3 Vinyl chloride is used primarily in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. National Toxicology Program. Instead, it is a manufactured substance produced by breaking down various other substances, gases, and chemicals. Best solution is to control exposure by elimination or substitution, for example replacing vinyl chloride by another non-carcinogenic substance, install ventilation systems or secure the processes. It is used in the plastics industry, often to produce PVC (polyvinyl chloride) ... VC is a known human carcinogen for which there is no safe exposure level (non-threshold carcinogen). Vinyl chloride does not occur in the environment naturally. Vinyl chloride has also been associated with mammary (breast) cancer. Vinyl chloride (VC) is a flammable and explosive colourless gas with a sweet odour. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Vinyl Chloride. Vinyl Chloride (VC) is a proven human carcinogen and a major risk factor in many contaminated aquifers. This toxic chemical is a known human carcinogen causing liver cancer, brain cancer and some cancers of the blood. Here, we review … The U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration provides information about exposure limits to vinyl chloride. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. At low exposure levels, the body is able to metabolize vinyl chloride and excrete it in urine. Perform proper exposure measurements so it is known when actions should be taken. Vinyl Halides (Selected), Report on Carcinogens, Fourteenth Edition. Spread the word and invite others to become a friend of the roadmap. The gene encoding the VC reductase, vcrA , is found on a mobile genetic element called the … Healthy Child Healthy World describes PVC as the most toxic plastic , and vinyl chloride, the chemical used to make PVC, has been described as a known carcinogen by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer. 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